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Table 2 Comparative protein composition profile from milk of minor dairy species (concentration range)

From: A comprehensive review on bioactive peptides derived from milk and milk products of minor dairy species

Protein Fraction Camel Goat Sheep Yak Donkey Mare
Total casein (g/kg) 22–48 23–38 41–66 21–40 6–10 8–14
αs1-Casein (% total) 21 4.5–34 7–40 13–32 17–47
αs2-Casein (% total) 9 9–25 12–23 9–18 2
β-Casein (% total) 65 34–64 34–62 37–51 46–79
κ-Casein (% total) 3–5 10–19 7–23 12–21 2–8
γ-Casein (% total) 5–6
Total whey proteins (g/kg) 6–10 3–12 8–16 11 5–9 7–10
α-Lactalbumin (% total WP) 45–53 17–50 13–45 7–20 23–33 17–42
β-Lactoglobulin (% total WP) 34–77 28–72 50–86 30–57 17–50
Serum albumin (% total WP) 30–41 5–22 6 7–15 6–7 3–5
Immunoglobulins (g/kg) 0.55–0.8 0.15–0.5 0.5–0.7 0.1–0.4 1.3 0.4–2.5
Lactoferrin (g/kg) 0.2–0.9 0.02–0.3 0.7–0.9 0.2–0.7 0.3 0.6–1.3
NPN (% total N) 6–11 7–12 6–9 6 11–25 10–15
  1. The table is adapted and modified from (Alichanidis et al. 2016)