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Table 3 Bioactive peptides derived from milk of minor dairy species

From: A comprehensive review on bioactive peptides derived from milk and milk products of minor dairy species

Species Function Peptide Sequence Activity Reference
Goat ACE-inhibitory activity ND 95.31% (Bao et al. 2016)
LVYPFPGP (β-CN, f58–65)
TVDQHQ (αS2-CN, f182–187)
ND (Minervini et al. 2003)
TGPIPN (β-CN, f78–83)
SLPQ (β-CN, f84–87)
SQPK (β-CN, f181–184)
IC50 316–354 μmol/L (Geerlings et al. 2006)
ND 88.91% (Chen et al. 2018)
ND 230.7 to 269.0 mg/mL (Espejo-Carpio et al. 2014)
PEQSLACQCL (β-lg, residues 113–122)
QSLVYPFTGPI (β-CN, residues 56–66)
ARHPHPHLSFM (κ-CN, residues 96–106)
IC50 4.45 μM (whey fraction)
4.27 μM (Casein fraction)
(Ibrahim et al. 2017)
Anti-diabetic activity SDIPNPIGSE (αS1-casein, f195–204)
NPWDQVKR (αS2-casein, f123–130) SLSSSEESITH (β-casein, f30–40) QEPVLGPVRGPFP (β-casein, f207–219)
ND (Gong et al. 2020)
DPP–IV inhibitroy activity (Anti-diabetic activity) MHQPPQPL (β-CN, f144–151)
SPTVMFPPQSVL (β-CN, f152–163)
VMFPPQSVL (β-CN, f155–163)
INNQFLPYPY (κ-casein, f51–60)
ND (Zhang et al. 2015)
Anti-oxidant activity ND 88.01 ± 0.69% (Shu et al. 2018)
Anti-oxidant activity ND ABTS (SC50 4 μg/ mL) Iron chelation activity IC50 65 μg/ mL (De Gobba et al. 2014)
Anti-oxidant activity LHSMKEGNPAHQKQP (αs1-CN, f120–134) PLRVYVEELKP (β-Lg, f 38–48) PEQSLACQCL (β-Lg, f 113–122) SDIPNPIGSENSGKTTMPL (αs1-CN, f 180–198)
SLTLTDVEKLHLPL (β-CN, f 124–137)
ND (Ahmed et al. 2015)
Anti-microbial activity ND Highest activity against E. coli and B. cereus (Esmaeilpour et al. 2016)
Anti-bacterial activity ND Highest Activity against E. coli and S. aureus (Lestari and Suyata 2019)
Anti-fungal activity ND Minimum inhibitory activity (3.9–62.5 g/L)
minimum fungicidal concentration (15.8–250 g/L)
(Luz et al. 2020)
ACE-inhibitory activity ND 71.04 ± 0.37% to 83.31 ± 0.45% (Shu et al. 2017)
Anti-bacterial peptides ND Minimum inhibitory activity 0.09 and
0.03 mg/mL against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus
(Osman et al. 2016)
ACE-inhibitory activity ND IC50 value of 218.50 μg/ mL (Espejo-Carpio et al. 2014)
Anti-microbial activity FHKFICKMMKIYL ND (Tomazou et al. 2019)
ACE-inhibitory activity VLPVPQKAVPQ,
VLPVPQKVVPQ
TQTPVVVPPFLQPEIMGVPKVKE
ND (Aslam et al. 2018)
Anti-fungal activity ISQYYQK (αS2-CN, f182–189)
FAWPQYLK (αS2-CN, f189–197)
Against Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus flavipes (Zanutto-Elgui et al. 2019)
Camel Milk Anti-oxidant activity LEEQQQTEDEQQDQL (LL-15] YLEELHRLNAGY (YY-11)
RGLHPVPQ (RQ-8)
ND (Homayouni-Tabrizi et al. 2017)
Anti-oxidant activity ATTLEGKLVEL (Lactophorin B, f79 to 89)
KADAVTLDGGL (Lactoferrin, f53 to 63)
KFGRGKPSGFQL (Lactoferrin, f277 to 288)
ND (Ibrahim et al. 2018)
Anti-microbial activity IYMESPQPTDTSPAQ (Lactophorin, f14)
FRNTATQSEETKE (Lactophorin, f14)
QMVPYPQR (βCN, f14)
IASEDGGKTDVMPQ (α-S1 CN, f14)
SSFRNTATQSEE (α-S1 CN, f14)
Against Staphylococcus faecalis, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. (Algboory and Muhialdin 2018)
ACE-inhibitory activity LSLSQFKVLPVPQ (βCN, f178–191)
KVLPVPQQMVPYPQ (βCN, f185–198)
TDLENLHLPLPL (βCN, f144–155)
ND (Alhaj 2017)
ACE-inhibitory activity DLENLHLPLPL
LTDLENLHLPLPL
TDLENLHLPLP
TDLENLHLPLPL
TLTDLENLHLPLPL
  (Jrad et al. 2014)
Anti-oxidant activity ND 91.28% inhibition; 32.25% DPPH radical scavenging activity; (Kumar et al. 2016a, 2016b)
Anti-oxidant activity ND 1.6 μmol TEAC/mg protein and 0.25 μmol TEAC/μmol eq. NH2 (Jrad et al. 2014)
ACE-inhibitory activity ND 2.223 to 3.930 mg/mL (Moslehishad et al. 2013)
Anti-inflammatory activity ND ID90 0.2 mg/mL (Abu-qatouseh 2019)
Anti-obesity KDLWDDFKGL
MPSKPPLL
ND (Mudgil et al. 2018)
Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity KFQWGY
SQDWSFY
YWYPPQ
ND (Mudgil et al. 2019)
DPP-IV inhibitory activity FLQY (αs2-CN, f71–74)
FQLGASPY (αs1-CN, f168–175,
ILDKEGIDY (α-La, f95–103),
ILELA (αs1-CN, f28–32),
LLQLEAIR (αs1-CN, f108–115),
LPVP (β-CN, f172–175),
LQALHQGQIV (αs2-CN, f75–84),
MPVQA (β-CN, f186–190)
LPVP IC50
87.0
MPVQA IC50
93.3 μM
(Nongonierma et al. 2018)
ACE-inhibitory activity Ala-Ile-Pro-Pro-Lys-Lys-Asn-Gln-Asp (κ-CN, f107–115 IC50 = 19.9 μmol/L (Shuangquan et al. 2008)
ACE-inhibitory activity ND IC50 73 μg/mL (Rahimi et al. 2016)
Anti-oxidant and ACE-inhibitory activity MVPYPQR (β-CN, f 193–199) 8933.05 mM TEAC/mg peptide ACE-I IC50 = 30 mM (Soleymanzadeh et al. 2019)
ACE-inhibitory activity VAHIPS (aS2-CN, f27–32) IC50 ¼ > 1000 mmol/ L (Tagliazucchi et al. 2016)
Anti-oxidant activity RLDGQGRPRVWLGR (TFI-b1),
TPDNIDIWLGGIAEPQVKR (TFI-b2)
VAYSDDGENWTEYRDQGAVEGK
(TFI-b3)
IC50
DPPH assay
1.9, 1.2 and 0.6 mg/mL
(Wali et al. 2020)
ABTS assay
2.4, 1.8 and 0.9 mg/mL
Sheep ACE-inhibitory PYVRYL (αs2-CN, f 203–208) IC50 2.4 μM (Gómez-Ruiz et al. 2007)
LKKISQ (αs2-CN, f 165–170) IC50 2.6 μM
VRYL (αs2-CN, f 205–208) IC50 24.1 μM (BEG et al. 1985)
YIPIQY (κ-CN, f 25–30) IC50 10 μM (Qian et al. 1995)
EKDERF (κ-CN, f 12–17) IC50 14.3 μM
IAK (κ-CN, f 22–24) IC50 15.7 μM
LPYPY (κ-CN, f 56–60) IC50 28.9 μM
MAIPPK (Casein macropeptide, f106–111), MAIPPKK (Casein macropeptide, f106–112) (Manso and López-Fandiño 2003)
LQKW (β-LG, f 58–61) IC50 3.5 μM (Girardet et al. 2000)
LLF (β-LG, f 103–105) IC50 82.4 μM
ALPMHIR (β-LG, f 142–148) IC50 62.6 μM (Papadimitriou et al. 2007)
IIVTQTMK (β-LG, f 1–8) IC50 70.8 μM
IDALNENK (β-LG, f 84–91) IC50 71.2 μM
Anti-oxidant HPHPHLSF (κ-CN, f 98–105) Potent inhibitor of linoleic acid oxidation (Gómez-Ruiz et al. 2008)
Anti-microbial VMFPPQSVL
(β-CN, f 155–163) and
VVAPFPEV (αs1-CN, f 24–31)
Active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species (Rizzello et al. 2005)
Yak ACE-inhibitory PPEIN (κ-CN, f 156–160) IC50 290 μM (Jiang et al. 2007)
PLPLL (β-CN, f 136–140) IC50 250 μM
YQKFPQY (αs2-CN, f 89–95), LQNIPPL (β-CN, f 70–77), SKVLPVPQK (β-CN, f 168–176), LPYPYY (κ-CN, f 56–61), FLPYPYY (κ-CN, f 55–61) IC50 380 μM (highest activity)
Mare ACE-inhibitory YQNPRLGPTGELDPATQPIVAVHNPVIV (β-CN, f 217–241) IC50 14.53 μM (Chen et al. 2010)
PKDLREN (CPN1, f 144–150) IC50 9.82 μM
LLLALILL IC50 5.19 μM
NHRNRMMDHVH IC50 13.42 μM
Donkey milk Anti-oxidant activity and ACE-inhibitory activity LNVSSETVES (β-CN)
GENLRLPVHL (β-CN)
IQPFMHQVPQ (β-CN)
ENSEKTDIIP (αs1-CN)
MGSTEIFPEE (αs2-CN)
IELSDEEKNY (αs2-CN)
IPQTMQDLDL (β-Lg)
QEVAGKWHSV (β-Lg)
AMAASDISLL (β-Lg)
DSESAPLRVY (β-Lg)
ND (Aspri et al. 2018)
ACE-inhibitory activity VAPFPQPVVP (β-CN, f176–185) ND (Bidasolo et al. 2012)
REWFTFLK
MPFLKSPIVPF
ND (Zenezini Chiozzi et al. 2016)
Anti-oxidant activity WFTFLKEAGQGAKDMWR
GQGAKDMWR
ND
Anti-microbial activity ND Inhibitory activity against E.coli and L. monocytogenes (Tidona et al. 2011)
  1. ND = Not defined