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Table 1 Sequence, physicochemical properties and metal ligand content of zinc-binding peptides derived from whey protein hydrolysate

From: Identification of zinc-binding peptides in ADAM17-inhibiting whey protein hydrolysates using IMAC-Zn2+ coupled with shotgun peptidomics

Peptide sequence Parent protein Accession # Net charge, pH 7 Hydrophobicity pI Instability index < 40 Aliphatic index % Total metal binding sites
%(H + C) %(D + E) %(Y + F)
HHKAPGPEDSLHEQ Folate receptor-α P02702 −1.725 − 1.878 6.21 93.64 35 21.4 21.4 0
TPVVVPPFLQPEVM β-casein P02666 −1.000 0.800 3.84 113.77 110.71 0 7.14 7.14
VEELKPTPEGDLEIL β-lactoglobulin P02754 −3.995 −0.671 3.67 57.65 123.33 0 33.3 0
LVRTPEVDDE β-lactoglobulin P02754 −2.997 −0.860 3.73 11.35 97 0 40.0 0
ELKPTPEGDLEIL β-lactoglobulin P02754 −2.996 −0.484 3.77 39.9 120 0 30.8 0
DHKSEEDKHLKIR Osteopontin-k P31098 0.183 −2.238 7.71 62.56 60 15.4 30.8 0
EKTKIPAVF β-lactoglobulin P02754 0.999 −0.033 9.53 17.66 86.67 0 12.5 12.5
TPVVVPPLQPE β-casein P02666 −1.000 0.209 3.84 124.56 114.55 0 9.10 0
KILDKVGIN α-lactalbumin P00711 0.997 0.200 9.53 −16.88 162.22 0 11.1 0
VIESPPEIN K-casein P02668 −1.998 −0.144 3.61 190.04 118.89 0 22.2 0
YWLAHK α-lactalbumin P00711 1.087 −0.616 9.30 36.93 81.67 16.7 0 16.7
KTKIPAVF β-lactoglobulin P02754 1.997 0.400 10.80 18.61 97.5 0 0 12.5
SWMHQPHQPLPPTVM β-casein P02666 0.179 −0.693 7.71 114.67 45.33 13.3 0 0
DTDYKKY β-lactoglobulin P02754 −0.003 −2.585 6.43 −12.9 0 0 28.6 28.6
VRTPEVDDE β-lactoglobulin P02754 −2.997 −1.377 3.73 11.5 64.44 0 44.4 0
WMHQPHQPLPPTVM β-casein P02666 0.179 −0.685 7.71 122.14 48.57 14.3 0 0
TMKGLIQ β-lactoglobulin P02754 0.997 0.242 9.70 −3.56 111.43 0 0 0
HQPHQPLPPTVMFPPQ β-casein P02666 0.179 −0.906 7.71 93.64 42.5 12.5 0 6.25
YWLAH α-lactalbumin P00711 0.088 0.040 7.54 −5.04 98 20.0 0 20.0
HKEMPFPKYPVEPF β-casein P02666 0.091 −1.000 7.54 135.19 20.71 7.14 14.3 21.4
LSFNPY β-lactoglobulin P02754 −0.003 −0.100 6.09 3.53 65 0 0 33.3
FYAPELL Serum albumin P02769 −1.001 0.828 3.85 141.31 125.71 0 14.3 28.6
KIPAVF β-lactoglobulin P02754 0.997 1.300 9.70 21.48 130 0 0 16.7
SVMHQPHQPLPPTVMFPPQ β-casein P02666 0.179 −0.480 7.71 110.58 51.05 10.5 0 5.26
  1. Instability index, estimation of stability of protein in a test tube: a protein whose instability index is smaller than 40 is predicted as stable, a value above 40 predicts that the protein may be unstable (Guruprasad et al. 1990); Aliphatic index, positive factor for thermostability of globular proteins based on the relative volume occupied by aliphatic side chains of protein (Ikai 1980) (ExPASy ProtParam); % Total (potential) metal binding sites, manual calculations of (number of applicable amino acid/total chain length)*100, %(H + C), %(D + E) and %(Y + F) (Lu et al. 2012) each represented different metal binding mechanisms