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Table 1 List of recent studies showing the mycotoxin contamination in different food crops

From: Aflatoxin contamination in food crops: causes, detection, and management: a review

S. No. Food crop Country Fungus species Type of Mycotoxin Mycotoxin concentration (ppb) References
1. Corn Serbia A.flavus,
A. parasiticus
Total AFs 1.01–86.10 Kos et al. 2013
2. Wheat Saudi Arabia A. flavus,
A. parasiticus
AFB1
AFB2
AFG1
AFG2
2.3
2.6
1.3
0.5
Al-Wadai et al. 2013
3. Maize kernel Hungary A. flavus
A. parasiticus
AFB1 72.6–73.3 Dobolyi et al. 2013
4. Red chili Turkey A. flavus,
A. parasiticus
AFB1
AFB2
AFG1
0.24–165
0.15–11.3
0.15–3.88
Golge et al. 2013
5. Groundnut Ethiopia A. flavus,
A. parasiticus
Total AFs 15–11,900 Chala et al. 2013
6. Fonio millet Nigeria A. flavus AFB1,2 233.2–692.0 Ezekiel et al. 2014
7. Corn India A. flavus AFB1 48–383 Mudili et al. 2014
8. Sorghum Ethiopia A. flavus AFB1
AFB2
29.5
2.56 ppb
Chala et al. 2014
9. Rice Nigeria A. flavus AFB1 37.26–113.20 ppb Anthony et al. 2014
10. Cashew nuts Brazil A. flavus,
A. parasiticus
Total AFs 0.60–31.50 Milhome et al. 2014
11. Madidi Nigeria A. flavus
A. parasiticus
AFB1
AFB2
0.2–125.60
0.95–18.4
Anthony et al. 2014
12. Rice China A. flavus AFB1 0.03–20 Lai et al. 2015
13. Maize Africa A. flavus AFB1 0.17–5.3 Sirma et al. 2015
Millet 0.14–6.4
Sorghum 0.15–210.1
14. Guava Egypt A. parasiticus AFB1
AFG1
0.163
0.296
Embaby & Hassan 2015
15. Dried Fruits Pakistan A. flavus Aflatoxin B1 0.04–9.80 Masood et al. 2015.
16. Coffee beans Spain A. flavus Fumonisins
Total AFs
58.62–537.45
0.25–13.12
García-Moraleja et al. 2015
17. Soybean Indonesia A. flavus AFB1
AFB2
AFG1
AFG2
1.50
0.88
0.18
0.43
Pratiwi et al. 2015
18. Hazelnut Italy A. flavus AFB1 56.00 Diella et al. 2018
Almond 72.00
Apricot 56.3
Pistachios 48.0
19. Groundnut Africa A. flavus Aflatoxin B1 72.97–195.17 Magembe et al. 2016
132.7 Sserumaga et al. 2021
20. Peanuts Zambia A. flavus Aflatoxin B1 0.015–46.60 Bumbangi et al. 2016
21. Figs Turkey A. flavus
A. parasiticus
A. niger
AFB1
AFB2
AFG1
AFG2
0.1–12.5
0.07–0.72
0.08–15.3
0.1–0.38
Kabak 2016
22. Lentil Turkey A. flavus Aflatoxin B1 0.57–1.74 Baydan et al. 2016
23. Rice Pakistan A. flavus Aflatoxin B1 0.04–21.30 Iqbal et al. 2016
24. Quince India A. flavus,
A. parasiticus
AFB1
AFB2
12.32–241.291
8.231–149.103
Bala et al. 2016
25. Mango seeds Nigeria A. flavus,
A. parasiticus
A. parviscleroti
AFB1
Total AF
Ochratoxin A
68.1
61.7
43.4
Ezekiel et al. 2016
Melon AFB1
Total AF
Ochratoxin A
37.5
48.7
0.6
26. Sunflower Tanzania A. flavus AFB1 2.8 Mmongoyo et al. 2017.
27. Chilies. United State (US) A. flavus Aflatoxin B1 <  2 Singh & Cotty 2017
28. Sesame  Nigeria A. flavus
A. parasiticus
A. niger
AFB1
AFB2
AFG1
AFG2
3.95–11.75
2.35
2.06
1.47
Matthew et al. 2021
29. Ginger Nigeria A.flavus,
A. parasiticus
Total AFs 0.11–9.52 Lippolis et al. 2017.
30. Corn Vietnam A. flavus Aflatoxin B1 1.0–34.80 Lee et al. 2017
31. Strawberry Egypt A. flavus,
A. parasiticus
A. niger
AFB1
AFB2
AFG1
AFG2
24.7–51.8
25.8–58.9
33.0–75.2
31.2–71.1
Saleem 2017
32. Lentil India A. flavus AFB1 3.8–8.6 Nazir et al. 2019
Black pepper AFB1 39.7–65.9
Coriander AFB1 33.4–67.9
Cumin AFB1 24.9–63.9
Aniseed AFB1 35.3–52.5
Black gram beans AFB1 4.8–15.4
33. Flax United States A. flavus
A. parasiticus
AFB1
AFG1
AFB1
AFG1
AFB2
247
51
324
34
6
Ting et al. 2020