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Table 3 Shortening substitutes and their potential effect on biscuit quality

From: Biscuits: a systematic review and meta-analysis of improving the nutritional quality and health benefits

Fat substitute Nature Substitution rate (%) Results References
Inulin Non-digestible dietary fiber 20 and 25 Textural and sensory properties maintained; Dietary fiber increased, weakened lubrication of biscuit dough, reduction of energy density Rodríguez-García et al. 2013; Błońska et al. 2014; Banerjee et al. 2014; Krystyjan et al. 2015; Onacik-Gür et al. 2015; Canalis et al. 2017
Rice starch Complex carbohydrates 20 Native and modified rice starch effective Lee & Puligundla 2016
Corn fiber Complex carbohydrates 30 Fat reduction and fiber fortification Forker et al. 2012
Lupine extract Complex carbohydrates 30 Fat reduction and fiber fortification Forker et al. 2012
Wheat bran fibers Plant fibers 10, 20, and 30 Texture of biscuits was greatly dependent on the texture of the dough Erinc et al. 2018
Candelilla wax-canola oil oleogels Oil 30–40 Decrease of saturated fatty acids (63.4% → 32.3%) Jang et al. 2015
Puree of canned green peas   75 Sensory assessment Romanchik-Cerpovicz et al. 2018
Lecithin   3 Lecithin (3%, sunflower based) achieved similar sensory quality as fat biscuit Onacik-Gür et al. 2015
Maltodextrin Complex carbohydrates 50, 60, and 70 Texture maintained, low-fat biscuit Sudha et al. 2007; Chugh et al. 2013
Guar gum Complex carbohydrates Low-fat biscuit Chugh et al. 2013
Polydextrose Complex carbohydrates 50, 60, and 70 Texture maintained Sudha et al. 2007, Aggarwal et al. 2016
Red palm oil Oil β-carotene van Stuijvenberg et al. 2001
Goat fat Oil 100 Functional and nutritional properties increased Costa et al. 2019
Flax oil Oil 100 ω-3 fatty acids Hassan et al. 2012
Sunflower oil Oil 100 Free of trans and low-saturated fats Tarancon et al. 2013; Onacik-Gür et al. 2015
Olive oil Oil 100 Free of trans and low-saturated fats Tarancón et al. Tarancon et al. 2013