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Table 4 The use of biscuit in clinical trial

From: Biscuits: a systematic review and meta-analysis of improving the nutritional quality and health benefits

Health concern Additional product Additional product properties Administration mode Result References
Micronutrient deficiency Multi-Micronutrient Improvement of micronutrient status 30 g biscuits, 5 days/week /4 months Improvement of the concentrations of hemoglobin (+ 1.87 g/L), plasma ferritin (+ 7.5 mg/L), body iron (+ 0.56 mg/kg body weight), plasma zinc (+  0.61 mmol/L), plasma retinol (+  0.041 mmol/L), and urinary iodine (+  22.49 mmol/L); reduction of the risk of anemia (40%) and deficiencies of zinc (40%) and iodine (40%). Nga et al. 2009
Iron fortification 2 or 3 biscuits / 6 d/week/ 28 weeks Improved iron status and reduction of blood lead concentrations (4.3 μg/dL to 2.9 μ g/dL for NaFeEDTA) Bouhouch et al. 2016
Roasted almonds Monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, and vitamin E 56 g of almonds biscuits / day / 4 weeks Decreased total cholesterol (5.5%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (4.6%), and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (6.4%) and increased plasma α-tocopherol (8.5%) compared to the biscuit control. Jung et al. 2018
Weight loss Whey protein and wheat bran Highest satiety feeling 50 g / day / 8 weeks Control appetite (Composite appetite score: − 3.12), more decrease of energy intake (− 1531.13 KJ/day), body weight (− 2.91 Kg), waist circumference (− 4.44 cm), and serum insulin (− 2.31 mIU/L); more increase GLP-1 (+ 0.05) and more attenuate reduction of HDL-C level (+ 1.18 mg/dl) comparatively to control biscuits. Hassanzadeh-Rostami et al. 2020
Soy fiber Rich source of dietary fiber 100 g/day / 12 weeks Significant decrease of body weight (− 1.39 kg), body mass index (− 0.51), waist circumference (− 1.75 cm), diastolic blood pressure (−  3.82 mmHg), serum levels of total cholesterol (− 0.58 mmol/L), LDL-C (− 0.41 mmol/L), and glucose (− 0.95 mmol/L), body fat (− 0.71 kg), and trunk fat (− 0.64 kg) for those who consumed the supplemented biscuits comparatively to those who consumed the control biscuit. Hu et al. 2013
Flaxseed flour Rich source of dietary fiber 100 g of biscuits / day / 60 days Decrease body weight (− 0.83) and lower triacylglycerol levels (− 0.04 mmol/L) comparatively to control group Kuang et al. 2020
Type 2 diabetes Carbohydrate Rich source of bioactive components 56 g /day / 8 weeks Significant reduction of serum total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio in women those consumed almond snack compared to those who consumed biscuit snack (− 0.36 mmol/L vs. -0.14 mmol/L) Bowen et al. 2019
Glucomannan and xanthan High fiber content 10 g / biscuit Reduction of the glycemic index by 74% in healthy participants and by 63% in participants with diabetes Jenkins et al. 2008
Post-prandial folate bioavailability Folic acid Folate plasma availability _ Biscuit and custard have presented comparable folate bioavailability Buffière et al. 2020
Serum cholesterol reduction efficacy Plant stanol ester Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol -(LDL-C-) lowering efficacy 1 biscuit / day / 2 weeks Compared to the control, the total cholesterol, LDL-C, and the LDL/HDL ratio had serum reductions of 4.9, 6.1, and 4.3%, respectively Kriengsinyos et al. 2015
Birth weight and perinatal mortality groundnut Reduce the retardation of fetal growth 2 biscuit (4.3 MJ*2)/day / 20 weeks Increased weight gain in pregnancy (136 g) over the whole year and significantly increased birth weight (11.1% of babies with low birth weight for the intervention group against (17% for the control group). Ceesay et al. 1997
Parasitic infections Multi-Micronutrient Decreased parasite load and improved cognitive outcomes 30 g biscuits, 5 days/week / 4 months Decrease of Ascaris (− 2328 eggs per gram of feces) and Hookworm (− 156 eggs per gram of feces) and improve cognitive outcomes. These values are higher than those of the group consumed placebo (− 1200 for Ascaris and − 144 for Hookworm). Nga et al. 2011
Gastrointestinal symptoms and autism spectrum disorders Gluten-free biscuit (GFB) Reduction of the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and autism spectrum disorders behaviors Gluten-free diet / 6 weeks Significant (P < 0.05) decrease of the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms after intake of GFB (40.57% vs. 17.10%) against an insignificant increase in the regular diet group (RD) (42.45% vs. 44.05%). GFB also induces a significant decrease in behavioral disorders (80.03 vs. 75.82) against an insignificant increase in the regular diet group (79.92vs. 80.92). Ghalichi et al. 2016
Prebiotics effect Partially hydrolysed guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharides Prebiotic effects 37.5 g / day / 21 days Bifidobacterial numbers increased from pretreatment levels of 9. 10 log 10 cells/g faeces and placebo levels of 9. 18 log10 cells/g faeces, to 9. 59 log10 cells/g faeces after ingestion of the experimental biscuits. Tuohy et al. 2001
Neurocognitive outcomes Soy protein Protein dietary supplementation Biscuits 5 days / week / 18 months Improvements of nonverbal cognitive (fluid intelligence) performance for children who received soy protein than those who received ASFs. For example, beery visual-motor integration for children who received soy protein is 7.44 and 6.70 for children who received beef. Loo et al. 2017