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Table 4 Bioactive peptides derived from milk products of minor dairy species

From: A comprehensive review on bioactive peptides derived from milk and milk products of minor dairy species

Product Peptide Function Activity References
Cheese
 Sheep milk cheese-like system Val-Pro-Lys-Val-Lys ACE-inhibitory Antioxidant activity 93.75 ± 0.06 IC50 μg/mL
0.079 ± 0.15 IC50 μg/mL
(Silva et al. 2006)
Tyr-Gln-Glu-Pro ACE-inhibitory Antioxidant activity 169.86 ± 0.10 IC50 μg/mL
0.102 ± 0.10 IC50 μg/mL
 Goat milk cheese-like system Tyr-Gln-Glu-Pro ACE-inhibitory Antioxidant activity 689.40 ± 0.18 I IC50 μg/mL
0.072 ± 0.06 I IC50 μg/mL
Arg-Pro-Lys-His-Pro-Ile-Lys-His-* ACE-inhibitory 892.83 ± 0.11 IC50 μg/mL
 Sheep Milk cheese
  Feta Identified in Roquefort type cheese
KEMPFPKYPVE β-CN, f(122–132)
ACE inhibitory expressed as ABTS (%) scavenging rate 32.71 ± 1.8 IC50 μg/mL (Meira et al. 2012)
  Pecorino Toscano WMHQPPQPLPPTVMFPPQSVL β-CN
f(158–178)
67.21 ± 0.1 IC50 μg/mL
  Roquefort MHQPPQPLPPTVMFPPQSVL β-CN
f(159–178)
87.46 ± 0.2 IC50 μg/mL
  Pecorino Sardo HQPPQPLPPTVMFPPQSVL β-CN f(160–178) 67.71 ± 3.2 IC50 μg/mL
  Cerrillano YQEPVLGPVRGPFPI β-CN f(206–220)
QEPVLGPVRGPFPILV β-CN f(207–222)
QEPVLGPVRGPFPI β-CN f(207–220)
PVLGPVRGPFPI β-CN f(209–220)
LGPVRGPFPI β-CN f(211–220)
TDAPSFSDIPNPIGSENSGK αS1-CN f(189–208)
DIPNPIGSENSGKTTMPLW αS1-CN f(196–214)
IPNPIGSENSGKIT αS1-CN f(197–210)
NAGPFTPTVNR αS2-CN f(131–141)
YQGPIVLNPWDQVKR αS2-CN f(116–130)
YQGPIVLNPWDQVK αS2-CN f(116–129)
GPIVLNPWDQVKR αS2-CN f(118–130)
VLNPWDQVKR αS2-CN f(121–130)
74.96 ± 1.6 IC50 μg/mL
 White brined goat milk cheese ND ACE inhibitory activity 62.55% (Kocak et al. 2020)
 Fresh goat milk cheese ND Antioxidant and ACE inhibitory ND (Hernández-Galán et al. 2017)
 Goat milk Tulum cheese ND Antioxidant, Mineral binding and antibacterial activity against
Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028
ND (Öztürk and Akin 2018)
 Cabrales cheese (Cow + sheep + Goat milk) DKIHP (β-CN f(47–51))
DKIHPF (β-CN f(47–52))
ACE inhibitory 113.1 μM
2419.4 μM
(Gómez-Ruiz et al. 2006)
 Idiazabal cheese (Sheep milk)
 Manchego cheese (Sheep milk)
 White brined goat cheese RPKHPIKHQGLPQEVLNENL.L (α-s1 f(1–20)) Immunopeptide ND (Atanasova et al. 2020)
 Sheep milk cheese L.KKISQ.R (α-s2 f(165–169)) Antibacterial ND
Yoghurt
 Yoghurt
  Goat milk ND DPPH scavenging activity 39.0 ± 1.0% (Sultan et al. 2017)
ND 38.0 ± 1.0%
  Sheep milk ND Antioxidant activity 40.3 ± 1.1%
ND 40.0 ± 1.4%
 Fermented camel milk yoghurt ND ACE inhibitory
Antimicrobial activity
113–200
70–133
(Alhaj et al. 2018)
 Fermented camel milk (Chal) ND DPPH activity
ABTS activity
57.90 ± 4.59 μM
1484.35 μM
(Soleymanzadeh et al. 2016)
 Camel milk heated at 80 °C/30 min prior to fermentation ND Reducing power (%)
DPPH (% inhibition)
16.93%
22.70%
(Abd Elhamid and Mervet 2017
 Fermented camel milk Total 32 peptides Antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli 20.0 and 16.0%, respectively (Algboory and Muhialdin 2018)
 Goat milk yoghurt AHTPDB Anti-hypertensive ND (Parmar et al. 2020)
 Goat milk yoghurt Casein fractions Antioxidant activity against TCDD (dioxin) ND (Haskito et al. 2020)
 Donkey milk fermented with Enterococcus faecium DM33 ND Antioxidant
Antimicrobial against L. monocytogenes 1078
350 ± 0.01 (Aspri et al. 2018)
 Fermented mare milk ND ACE inhibitory 70.9–74.5% (Wang et al. 2015)
 Sheep milk yoghurt PVVVPPFLQ (β-CN f(96–104)) Antihypertensive ND (Dalziel et al. 2018)
 Greek sheep milk yoghurt YPVEPFTE (β-CN f(114–121)) ACE inhibitory and Opiate like activity ND (Papadimitriou et al. 2007)
Kefir and Koumiss
 Goat milk Kefir ND ACE inhibitory 75% (Shi et al. 2018)
 Goat milk Kefir ND Antioxidant activity ND (Satir and Guzel-Seydim 2015)
 Goat milk Kefir AASDISLLDAQSAPLR (β-lg f(43–58)) Anti-bacterial ND (Izquierdo-González et al. 2019)
INNQFLPYPY (κ-CN f(42–51)) Dipeptidyl peptidase IV
inhibitor
ND
TAQVTSTEV (κ-CN f(154–162)) Anti-thrombotic ND
  1. ND = Not defined