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Table 2 The application of pulsed electric field in different status of muscle

From: Techniques for postmortem tenderisation in meat processing: effectiveness, application and possible mechanisms

Muscle status Muscle studied PEF parameters Results References
Pre-rigor longissimus Lumborum
(beef)
5, 10 kV × 20, 50, 90 Hz Tougher with increasing intensity Suwandy et al. 2015b
Pre-rigor longissimus Lumborum
(beef)
Repeat PEF (1×, 2×, 3×)
10 kV, 90 Hz, 20 μs
1× and 2× PEF had no tenderising effect
3× PEF reduced the tenderness (TD)
Bekhit et al. 2016
Pre-rigor Semimembranosus
(beef)
5, 10 kV × 20, 50, 90 Hz Improved tenderness
21.6% reduction in the shear force (SF)
Suwandy et al. 2015b
Pre-rigor Semimembranosus
(beef)
Repeat PEF (1×, 2×, 3×)
10 kV, 90 Hz, 20 μs
Improved tenderness
3× PEF produced the lowest SF
Bekhit et al. 2016
Post-rigor longissimus thoracis
(beef)
0.2–0.6 kV cm− 1, 1–50 Hz, 20 μs
Ageing time (1, 3 d)
PEF had no influence on the TD and SF Faridnia et al. 2014
Post-rigor Longissimus thoracis et lumborum
(beef)
1.4 kV/cm, 10 Hz, 20 μs
Ageing time (2, 10, 18, 26 d)
Ageing time showed a tendency towards reducing toughness
PEF did not affect the tenderising process
Arroyo et al. 2015
Post-rigor Longissimus Lumborum (beef) 5, 10 kV × 20, 50, 90 Hz
Ageing tine (1 d)
19.5% reduction in the SF regardless of the intensity Bekhit et al. 2014
Post-rigor Longissimus Lumborum (beef) 5, 10 kV × 20, 50, 90 Hz
Ageing time (3, 7, 14, 21 d)
19.0% reduction in the SF regardless of the intensity Suwandy et al. 2015a
Post-rigor Longissimus Lumborum (beef) Repeat PEF (1×, 2×, 3×)
10 kV, 90 Hz, 20 μs
Decrease by 2.5 N with every extra PEF Suwandy et al. 2015c
Post-rigor Semimembranosus
(beef)
5, 10 kV × 20, 50, 90 Hz
Ageing time (1, 3 d)
Positive correlation between TD and frequency, and 19.1% reduction in the SF Bekhit et al. 2014
Post-rigor Semimembranosus
(beef)
5, 10 kV × 20, 50, 90 Hz
Ageing time (3, 7, 14, 21 d)
Positive correlation between TD and frequency, and 19.0% reduction in the SF Suwandy et al. 2015a
Post-rigor Semimembranosus
(beef)
Repeat PEF (1×, 2×, 3×)
10 kV, 90 Hz, 20 μs
PEF had no influence on the TD and SF Suwandy et al. 2015c
Post-rigor Semitendinosus
(beef)
1.9 kV/cm, 65 Hz, 20 μs PEF had no influence on the TD and SF O’Dowd et al. 2013
Post-rigor Breast meat
(turkey)
7.5, 10, 12.5 kV × 10, 55, 110 Hz
fresh and frozen-thawed meat
Ageing time (5 d)
PEF had no influence on the TD and SF in both fresh and frozen-thawed meat Arroyo et al. 2015
Post-rigor Biceps femoris
(beef)
1.7 kV/cm, 50 Hz, 20 μs
Ageing time (21 d)
Improved tenderness, decreased SF Faridnia et al. 2016
Post-rigor Biceps femoris & semitendinosus
(beef)
0.8–1.1 kV/cm, 50 Hz, 20 μs
fresh and frozen-thawed meat
Improved meat tenderness and colour
Increased fat oxidation and saturated fatty acids in frozen-thawed
Kantono et al. 2019
Post-rigor Shoulder (pork) 0.5–5 kV/cm, 50–1000 pulses, 1–25 kJ/kg Increased tenderness Toepfl 2006
Post-rigor Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (pork) 1.2 or 2.3 kV/cm × 100 or 200 Hz × 150 or 300 pulses No effect McDonnell et al. 2014