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Table 1 Effect of the addition of byproducts on the sensorial, rheological, antioxidant and health beneficial properties of wheat bread

From: Addition of phenolic compounds to bread: antioxidant benefits and impact on food structure and sensory characteristics

Source and amount of phenolic compounds Observed results Reference
Grape seed extract with 95 % proanthocyanidins including catechins and epicatechins. 300 mg, 600 mg and 1 g of grape seed extract were added to the flour. The grape seed extract improved the antioxidant activity with respect to the control bread and a decrease in carboxymethyllysine, a compound present in the crust of bread, known to cause oxidative stress, was observed. The addition of the extract also caused a color change in the bread without significantly affecting other sensory properties. Peng et al. (2010)
Prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) mucilage added at 5.62 to 1.38 % to the flour The substitution of water with prickly pear mucilage did not affect the fermentation process or the sensory acceptance by the trained panel. An enrichment of antioxidant compounds was observed Liguori et al. (2019)
Pomegranate seed powder in 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 % substitutions With a 10 % substitution of wheat flour with pomegranate seed flour, a slight decrease in rheological properties such as volume and crumb hardness were observed. An increase in the content of punicic acid antioxidant activity was observed. Pamisetti et al. (2019)
Hazelnut and walnut flours, in 1, 3, 6 and 9 % substitutions The addition of hazelnuts and walnuts to the formulation increased the fiber and fat content of the bread, as well as a decrease in the loaf volume, which resulted in a harder and chewier consistency. On the other hand, it increased the antioxidant activity of bread, as well as its nutritional value. Pycia & Ivanisova (2020)
Defatted apple seed flour in 5 and 20 % substitution Partial substitution of wheat flour with defatted apple seed flour had a significant impact from a nutritional, sensory and texture point of view. The 20 % substitution had the highest nutritional value. While the 5 % substitution had better sensory acceptance and higher soluble fiber content. Puric et al. (2020)
Tannic acid at levels of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 g/kg The addition of tannic acid increased water absorption, dough stability, increasing its resistance and extensibility. The best rheological characteristics were observed at 0.03 g/kg. The loef volume increased while the free sulfhydryl groups decreased. Which may indicate the formation of new bonds between tannic acid and gluten proteins. Zhang et al. (2010)
Phenolic acids: caffeic, ferulic, syringic and gallic at 4.44 mmol L-1 g-1 The addition of phenolic acids decreased the mixing time, as well as the tolerance to mixing, spread and the volume of the loaf. Han & Bong-Kyung (2011)
Tannin solution at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % The 0.3 % solution showed the best mixing properties. The addition of tannins was found to promote the polymerization of gluten proteins, thus resulting in improved mixing properties. Wang et al. (2014)
Addition of sorghum and grape seed proanthocyanidins at 0.8, 1.6 and 2.5 mg of PAC/ g of flour Two types of proanthocyanidins (PAC) from two different natural sources were added. Sorghum PAC increased the elasticity and strength of a weak gluten which made it acquire the rheological behavior of a strong gluten. While grape seed PAC showed a slight increase in the elasticity of the dough. Which indicates that the molecular weight of PACs is a key factor in the interaction between these compounds and gluten proteins. Girard et al. (2016)
Green coffee bean flour at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % substitution Phenolic compounds present in the green coffee bean flour interacted with the bread matrix, as observed by the protein-phenol complexes formation, observed through chromatography and electrophoresis. Results also showed a decrease in starch and protein digestibility. Swieca et al. (2018)