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Table 1 Improved materials used to substitute wheat flour in biscuit production

From: Biscuits: a systematic review and meta-analysis of improving the nutritional quality and health benefits

Product added Improvement elements Substitution level (%) Reference
Buckwheat Processing properties, sensory, and textural characteristics, protein content, and gluten-free biscuits 50–100 Sedej et al. 2011; Torbica et al. 2012; Hadnađev et al. 2013; Mancebo et al. 2015; Kaur et al. 2015
Sorghum Dietary fiber and low calorie; Fat, protein, ash, and calorific values as compared to wheat biscuits 25–45, 50, and 100 Okpala & Okoli 2011; Banerjee et al. 2014; Rai et al. 2014; Songré-Ouattara et al. 2016, 2017
Maize Gluten-free biscuits 100 Rai et al. 2014; Mancebo et al. 2015
Rice Processing properties, sensory, and textural characteristics, gluten-free biscuits 50–100 Ceesay et al. 1997; Torbica et al. 2012; Hadnađev et al. 2013; Radočaj et al. 2014; Rai et al. 2014; Mancebo et al. 2015; Benkadri et al. 2018; Sulieman et al. 2019
Pearl millet Fat, protein, ash, and calorific values as compared to wheat biscuits 100 Rai et al. 2014
Foxtail millet flour Low phytates and tannins, increased polyphenols 9 Singh & Kumar 2017
Copra Fiber and protein contents 51 Singh et al. Singh & Kumar 2017
Pea Protein, fat, iron, and crude fiber contents 5–100 (Adeola & Ohizua 2018, Benkadri et al. 2018 Chinma et al. 2011, Dhankhar et al. 2019, Han et al. 2010, Okpala & Okoli 2011, Silky & Tiwari 2014, Zucco et al. 2011)
Bean Physical and nutritional characteristics 25, 50, 75, and 100 Han et al. 2010; Zucco et al. 2011
Lentil Physical and nutritional characteristics 100 Han et al. 2010; Zucco et al. 2011
Potato Protein, fat, minerals, crude fiber, staling, flavor, ash, and sugar 10, 14, 16, 18–100 (Abou-Zaid & Elbandy 2014; Onabanjo & Ighere 2014; Adeyeye & Akingbala 2015; Songré-Ouattara et al. 2016; Adeola & Ohizua 2018; Sulieman et al. 2019)
Cheese Digestible source of fat and protein and rich source of vitamin A, B2 and B12 and highly bioavailable minerals as calcium and zinc 30, 40, and 50 Swapna & Jayaraj Rao 2016
Date powder Fiber 10, 20, 30, and 40 Dhankhar et al. 2019
Soy Protein, anti-nutrients, amino acids and vitamins profile and sensory evaluation 5, 10, 15, and 20 Hu et al. 2013, Loo et al. 2017; Ghoshal & Kaushik 2020, Adeyeye 2020
Flaxseed ω-3 (α-linolenic acid), dietary soluble and insoluble fibers and lignans 5, 12, 15, 30, 50, and 75 Hassan et al. 2012; Coutinho de Moura et al. 2014; Austria et al. 2016; Omran et al. 2016; Kuang et al. 2020
Almond Bioactive components Jung et al. 2018; Bowen et al. 2019; Pasqualone et al. 2020
Groundnut Energy, protein, calcium, and iron Ceesay et al. 1997
Fenugreek Protein, lysine, dietary fiber, Ca, Fe, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins 5, 10, and 15 Hooda & Jood 2005
Mushrooms Protein, fiber, ash, fat, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, vitamin B3, vitamin C, texture, flavor, and sensory acceptability 5, 10, 15, and 20 Ayo et al. 2018; Biao et al. 2020
Acha Carbohydrate 100 Ayo et al. 2018
Cocoyam Carbohydrate 100 Okpala & Okoli 2011; Akujobi 2018
Tigernut flour Protein, magnesium, iron, zinc, vitamin E, vitamin A, and folic acid 30, 50, 70, 80, 85, 90 and 95 Chinma et al. 2011; Akujobi 2018
Gums Effect of gums addition on color, appearance and flavor and overall acceptability 100 Kaur et al. 2015
Multi-micronutrients (Iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamin A) Iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamin A content Nga et al. 2009, 2011; Songré-Ouattara et al. 2016
Amaranth flours Amino acid profile and high bioavailability of protein 13, 20, and 40 De la Barca et al. 2010; Singh & Kumar 2017
Fish and crustacean Lysine, amino acids 3, 5, and 6 Ibrahim 2009; Abou-Zaid & Elbandy 2014
Grape (skin and seeds) Proteins, ash, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and phenolic compounds (tannins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and resveratrol) 15 Karnopp et al. 2015; Kuchtová et al. 2016, 2018
Moringa Carotenoid, protein, and dietary fiber 5, 10, and 15 Songré-Ouattara et al. 2016, 2017
Spirulina Carotenoid 4, 6, and 8 Songré-Ouattara et al. 2016, 2017
Hemp flour Protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids 10, 20, 30, and 40 Radočaj et al. 2014
Okra powder Protein, ash, and fiber 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Akoja & Coker 2018
Tea leaves Protein, fiber, minerals, and antioxidant properties 2.67, 2.02, 1.35, and 0.68 Radočaj et al. 2014
Mustard meal Sensory quality maintained, nutritional and functional properties improved 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Hassan et al. 2012
Barley meal Sensory quality maintained, nutritional and functional properties improved 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Hassan et al. 2012
Teff flour Essential amino acids, iron, calcium, copper, zinc, aluminum, and barium 10, 20, 40, and 100 Coleman et al. 2013; Mancebo et al. 2015
Oat (flour and bran) Influence of different packaging on the storage period, fibers content 100 Serial et al. 2016; Swapna & Jayaraj Rao 2016; Lee & Kang 2018; Duta et al. 2019
Inulin Fibers content Serial et al. 2016
Whey protein Dietary fiber, protein, lipids, carbohydrate, sugar and energy 25 Aggarwal et al. 2016, Hassanzadeh-Rostami et al. 2020
Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide Ash, protein, fat and total dietary fibers 3, 6, and 9 Sulieman et al. 2019
Banana (flour and peel) Phenolic compound, starch digestibility, and glycemic index 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 50 Ovando-Martinez et al. 2009; Agama-Acevedo et al. 2012; Arun et al. 2015; Adeola & Ohizua 2018
Mango peel Dietary fiber, polyphenols and carotenoids 5, 7.5, 10, 15, and 20 Ajila et al. 2008
Fruit and vegetable residue Fiber and mineral 20, 25, and 35 Ferreira et al. 2013
Citrus (orange and lemon) by-products Dietary fiber 0, 5, 10, and 15 Kohajdova et al. 2011
Grapefruits by-products Dietary fiber 5, 10, and 15 Kohajdova et al. 2013
Watermelon rind powder Dietary fiber, total phenolic content, glycemic index, and antioxidant activity 10, 20, and 30 Naknaen et al. 2016
Sour cherry pomace Total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity 10 and 15 Šaponjac et al. 2016
Berries pomace Linoleic acid and α -linolenic acid 20 and 30 Šarić et al. 2016
Pomegranate peel Protein, dietary fiber, minerals, antioxidant activity, and β-carotene content 10 Srivastava et al. 2014
Apple pomace Antioxidant properties, total dietary fiber, and minerals content 3, 6, 9, 15, and 20 Mir et al. 2015; Sudha et al. 2016
Olive pomace Polyphenols and fiber Conterno et al. 2019
Pomace of rowanberry, rosehip, blackcurrant, and elderberry Dietary fiber, vitamins, and phenolic compounds 20 Tańska et al. 2016
Pumpkin Dietary fiber 10 and 15 Turksoy & Ozkaya 2011
Carrot pomace Dietary fiber 10 and 15 Turksoy & Ozkaya 2011
Carob by-products (germ and seed peel) Protein, fiber and antioxidant activity Carob peel: 0–9; Carob germ: 0–18 Martin-Diana et al. 2016
Beet molasses Biscuit spread, fracturability, and storability 10–50 Filipčev et al. 2014, 2015
Glucomannan and xanthan Fiber content Jenkins et al. 2008
Plant Stanol Ester Phytosterols Kriengsinyos et al. 2015
Fructo-oligosaccharides Fiber content 20 Tuohy et al. 2001
Gum (guar and xanthan) Technological properties, fiber content 11 Tuohy et al. 2001; Benkadri et al. 2018