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Table 2 Bioactivities of phenolic acids and flavonoids in different cereal and millet grains

From: Efficacy of germination and probiotic fermentation on underutilized cereal and millet grains

Grains Phenolic compound Bioactivities References
  Phenolic acids   
Cereals
Barley, sorghum, wheat, rice, oats, maize,
Millets
Finger, pearl and foxtail millet
Ferulic acid Anti-carcinogenic
Prevents and controls type 2 diabetes
Suppressing hypertension
Fahrioğlu et al. (2016)
Narasimhan et al. (2015)
Hou et al. (2004)
Kaur et al. (2014)
Cereals
Sorghum, rice
Millets
Finger millet
Gallic acid Anti-cancer
Antimicrobial
Yeh et al. (2011)
Kang et al. (2008)
Kaur et al. (2014)
Cereals
Barley, maize, oats, rice, sorghum
Millets
Finger, pearl and foxtail millet
p-coumaric acid Anti-cancer Janicke et al. (2011)
Kaur et al. (2014)
Dykes and Rooney (2007)
Cereals
Maize, oats, rice, sorghum, wheat
Millets
Finger, pearl and foxtail millet
Chlorogenic and caffeic acids Anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic Mennen et al. (2005)
Kaur et al. (2014)
Dykes and Rooney (2007)
Cereals
Maize, oats, rice, sorghum, wheat, barley
Millets
Finger and pearl millet
Vanillic acid Anti-inflammatory
Antioxidant
Calixto-Campos et al. (2015)
Dykes and Rooney (2007)
  Flavonoids   
Cereals
Oats, sorghum
Millets
Finger millet
Apigenin Anti-inflammatory
Anti-cancer
Ju et al. (2015)
Watanabe et al. (2007)
Dykes and Rooney (2007)
Cereals
Maize, oats
Kaempferol Anti-inflammatory
Anti-cancer
Calderon-Montano et al. (2011)
Devi et al. (2015)
Kaur et al. (2014)
Cereals
Barley and sorghum
Catechin Preventing Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases Dai et al. (2006)
Kaur et al. (2014)
Shahidi and Yeo (2018)
Cereals
Oats, wheat
Millets
Barnyard millet
Tricin Anti-obesity
Anti-inflammatory
Lee and Imm (2017, 2018)
Dykes and Rooney (2007)
Cereals
Oats, sorghum
Millets
Foxtail and Barnyard millet
Luteolin Antioxidant
Anti-inflammatory
Pradeep and Sreerama (2018)
Dykes and Rooney (2007)